Fantastic article from the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.
Discusses oxygen uptake and how it can change depending on how much the upper body needs to work.
View the link below to head to the article:
Here is part of the conclusion:
“This suggests that additional work done by the arm muscles to stabilise the body at high work rates may contribute to the VO2 slow component, although the question of
“How much?” remains to be determined”
This will be great for cycling teams to understand the energy cost of upper body movement to help identify differences in nutritional requirements for individual athletes.